uses an individual-based (in fact
‘phenotype-based’) approach with 3 components:
the ZEN simulation, mutant phenotypes created
by the triggering of mutations interact with resident phenotypes. They
or go extinct, possibly leading to evolutionary branching and
(Figs. 1, 2).
are described in a text file using a reduced
declaration language, and studied by means of a simple interface with
convenient graphics. The ZEN kernel is a symbolic evaluator handling
first evolutionary models in biology are verbal arguments, like
that the primary sex ratio is 1/2. Theoretical evolutionary models
develop in the 80’s with quantitative genetics and game
theory. In this context
originated the important notion of Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS),
had premises in the work of
recent theory of adaptive dynamics (Metz et al. 1996, Dieckmann
& Law 1996)
is based on population dynamics, and incorporates implicitly an
mechanism operating on continuous adaptive traits. The evolutionary
determined from the persistence of rare mutants in a resident
population by computing
their fitness gradient in the ecological setup.
achievement of the theory is the classification of the possible
outcomes, making a synthesis of previous results. A fascinating
that of evolutionary branching, which stems from the biological nature
models, and does not appear in physical systems. In this situation,
constraints lead to disruptive selection, and possibly to sympatric
distributed free of charge. Users are under their own responsibility.
Double-click on autozen.exe.
will expand in directory c:/zen
version is identical to Windows version
distribution file zen.tar.gz
using command tar -xzf zen.tar.gz
installation, consult file ZenLinuxInstall.txt
Console version, no graphics
Program file: zenc
ZEN package is provided with example model files
and a complete user’s manual.
installation, the ZEN directory should contain:
drop any model file *.zen on the ZEN program icon.
The program is run
with the file as input. Click to
process the file, and to
the model. Consult the reference manual
for more information.
The ZEN computer project was funded by an Action
Ecole Normale Supérieure
Minus van Baalen
Institut des sciences de l’évolution
Université Montpellier 2
Nicolas Champagnat, Guillaume Chapron, Mathias Gauduchon.